Wouldn’t it be wonderful if we could breathe underwater? But is it even possible?

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Sources:
http://scienceline.ucsb.edu/getkey.php?key=2087
https://www.livescience.com/32196-why-cant-human-beings-breathe-underwater.html
https://gizmodo.com/can-humans-breathe-liquid-1156138301
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4258983/
http://www.f2chemicals.com/pdf/technical/Gas %20solubility.pdf
https://www.cbsnews.com/news/drug-unapproved-by-fda-saves-infants-life/
https://dnr.mo.gov/env/esp/wqm/DOSaturationTable.htm
http://www.fondriest.com/environmental-measurements/parameters/water-quality/dissolved-oxygen/
http://rainbow.ldeo.columbia.edu/dl/QA/43.html
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3191624/


When you think of animals with awesome abilities, fish usually aren’t the first thing that come to mind, but there are a few species that have taken their adaptations to the extreme!

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Sources:

http://www.cell.com/cms/attachment/2110595655/2083227706/mmc2.mp4
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00361900
http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822 (06)01013-X
http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822 (14)00922-1?_returnURL=http%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0960982214009221%3Fshowall%3Dtrue
http://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/early/2017/01/11/jeb.146936.full.pdf
https://www.nature.com/articles/srep27523
https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/11/071106-tree-fish.html
http://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/219/12/1860.full.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17371909
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21029016
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3501099/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3501094/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3501097/
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/fishes-use-problem-solving-and-invent-tools/
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007 %2Fs00338-011-0790-y
https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt3qg3h7pd/qt3qg3h7pd.pdf
https://www.amazon.ca/What-Fish-Knows-Underwater-Cousins/dp/0374288216


Nick Jenkins of Crash Course faces off against Hank Green of SciShow in this collision of science and nerdy pop-culture references.

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Sources:

Roman Concrete
https://unews.utah.edu/roman-concrete/
https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/msa/ammin/article/102/7/1435/353606/Phillipsite-and-Al-tobermorite-mineral-cements
http://www.uobabylon.edu.iq/eprints/publication_1_302_1586.pdf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File :Caesarea_Concrete_Bath.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File :Rome-Pantheon-Interieur1.jpg

Lycurgus Cup

https://www.theguardian.com/nanotechnology-world/nanotechnology-is-ancient-history
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007 %2FBF03215599
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/this-1600-year-old-goblet-shows-that-the-romans-were-nanotechnology-pioneers-787224/
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Brit_Mus_13sept10_brooches_etc_044.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File :Lycurgus_Cup_red_BM_MME1958.12-2.1.jpg

Tribbles
http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822 (00)00502-9
http://www.sdbonline.org/sites/fly/newgene/tribbls1.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File :Normal_Cell_Life_Cycle.png
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File :Mitosis_Stages.svg

Tinman
http://dev.biologists.org/content/118/3/719.long
http://dev.biologists.org/content/121/11/3889.long
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9621430

Dracula
http://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822 (00)00653-9.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC52960/

Smaug
http://www.cell.com/molecular-cell/fulltext/S1097-2765 (00)80368-8?_returnURL=http%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS1097276500803688%3Fshowall%3Dtrue
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7515724

Midichlorians Bacteria
https://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/24528/title/Use-the-force--bacteria/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26108374


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Salt doesn’t just make things salty! It has a lot of different effects on how we perceive flavors!

Hosted by: Hank Green
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Sources:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK50958/ #_ch3_s7_
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982213004181
http://www.seriouseats.com/2016/07/how-do-we-taste-salt-sour-acid-sweet-bitter-flavor.html
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0072592/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12180534
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2849629/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3069197/
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/14042126_Salt_enhances_flavour_by_suppressing_bitterness_5
http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US8629343
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0031938485904123
https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/10/tasting-a-flavor-that-doesnt-exist/411454/
https://academic.oup.com/chemse/article-abstract/20/6/609/380122
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280021255_Suppression_of_Bitterness_Using_Sodium_Salts
http://www.graintec.com.au/media/12856/Fundamentals.pdf
https://books.google.com/books?id=3gFg3_hx8p8C& ;amp;pg=PA127
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0308814684900736
https://academic.oup.com/chemse/article/29/5/431/368354

Images:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Salt_Crystals.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :ENaC_membrane_side_eng.svg


A species of ant has been discovered to rescue and tend to the battle wounds of other ants injured while hunting, and scientists think that this is the first time this behavior has ever been observed in insects.

Thumbnail photo by Erik T. Franks

Hosted by: Hank Green
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Sources:
https://www.eurekalert.org/emb_releases/2018-02/uow-mcf020918.php
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.2457
http://www.gorongosa.org/explore-park/wildlife/micro-world/matabele-ants
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/02/180208141346.htm
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/359/6376/693.full
https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/02/08/584330475/major-psychiatric-disorders-have-more-in-common-than-we-thought-study-finds
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMHT0024757/
http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/02/major-mental-illnesses-unexpectedly-share-brain-gene-activity-raising-hope-better


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It’s pretty well known that Australia is home to some strange animals, but echidnas are especially weird evolutionary misfits.

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Sources:
http://www.nationalgeographic.com.au/animals/how-the-platypus-and-echidna-lost-their-stomachs.aspx
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/many-animals-including-the-platypus-lost-their-stomachs-180948103/
http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2013/12/03/how-the-platypus-and-a-quarter-of-fishes-lost-their-stomachs/
http://www.nationalgeographic.com.au/animals/echidna.aspx
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0006070 #s1
http://www.publish.csiro.au/ZO/ZO09037
https://eprints.utas.edu.au/2320/1/Nicol_et_al._2007_The_life_history_of_an_egg-laying_mammal2C_the_echidna_Ecoscience.pdf
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0531556508001629
http://reptilepark.com.au/animals/mammals/echidna/
http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2011/01/11/3110568.htm
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcp.1040670108/abstract
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5399094/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2441467/
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/obl4he/vertebratediversity/monotremes.html
http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/522847?seq=2 #page_scan_tab_contents
http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/Factsheet3Echidnas.pdf
http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1591& ;amp;context=hbspapers
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290413985_Marsupial_and_Monotreme_Evolution_And_Biogeography

Image Sources:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Heteropoda_venatoria_-_female_at_Mechode_Padur.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :CSIRO_ScienceImage_10356_Superb_Lyrebird.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Monotreme_reproductive_organs.png


Proud of what you just did in the bathroom? You should be, but here are 6 animals who are masters of the art of pooping!

Hosted by: Stefan Chin
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Sources:

https://io9.gizmodo.com/5872472/the-wombats-cubic-poop-is-one-of-natures-weirdest-superpowers
https://theconversation.com/why-do-wombats-do-cube-shaped-poo-55975
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3797445
https://www.birdwatchingdaily.com/blog/2015/02/25/julie-craves-explains-droppings-reveal-wild-turkeys/
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007 %2Fs00300-003-0563-3
http://mentalfloss.com/article/70087/some-penguins-are-projectile-poopers
https://www.livescience.com/59601-why-do-animals-eat-poop.html
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1344-3941.2003.00124.x/full
https://www.reed.edu/biology/professors/srenn/pages/teaching/web_2008/ryaw_site/index.html
http://www.reed.edu/biology/professors/srenn/pages/teaching/web_2008/ryaw_site/mechanism.html
https://www.wired.com/2015/06/absurd-creature-of-the-week-tortoise-beetle/
http://www.pnas.org/content/97/6/2632.long
https://www.wired.com/2012/08/blue-whale-poop/
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/277/1699/3527.full
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0013255
https://www.npr.org/sections/krulwich/2014/04/03/298778615/the-power-of-poop-a-whale-story
https://www.livescience.com/8788-whale-poo-ocean-miracle-grow.html

PICS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File :Vombatus_ursinus_-Maria_Island_National_Park.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File :Certified_Wombat_Faeces.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Sperm_whale_pod_recolored.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Sperm_whale_Tim_Cole_NMFS_crop.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Sperm_whale_drawing_with_skeleton.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Flickr_-_don_macauley_-_Deadly_Nightshade.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Southern_Hairy-nosed_Wombat.jpg


Not everyone gets a winter as cold (or at the same time) as we do at SciShow, but no matter where you live, you may have wondered why venturing out into the cold often makes you have to pee more often.

Hosted by: Hank Green
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Sources:
http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/1811574
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f5ff/aea5b6ba2b5d56b41d31e5dc3f90c0553c98.pdf
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0163725882900675
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.739.1593& ;amp;rep=rep1&type=pdf
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00039896.1974.10666581?journalCode=vzeh20
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306456599000856
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK232870/
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8553221_Human_Physiological_Responses_to_Cold_Exposure


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Thunder is not something you normally associate with a winter storm. However, if the conditions are right, you might experience thundersnow.

Hosted by: Hank Green
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Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters: Kelly Landrum Jones, Sam Lutfi, Kevin Knupp, Nicholas Smith, D.A. Noe, alexander wadsworth, سلطا الخليفي, Piya Shedden, KatieMarie Magnone, Scott Satovsky Jr, Charles Southerland, Bader AlGhamdi, James Harshaw, Patrick Merrithew, Patrick D. Ashmore, Candy, Tim Curwick, charles george, Saul, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Viraansh Bhanushali, Kevin Bealer, Philippe von Bergen, Chris Peters, Justin Lentz
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Sources:
https://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/climate-weather/storms/question646.htm
https://weather.com/science/news/what-thundersnow-and-why-does-it-happen-20140218
https://www.accuweather.com/en/weather-news/what-is-a-blizzard/5674708
https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/facts-effects-and-formation-of-blizzards.php
http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/1998-10/909280669.Ph.r.html
https://www.quora.com/Why-is-the-sky-in-summer-hazy-white-or-lighter-blue-while-in-the-winter-its-dark-blue
https://www.nssl.noaa.gov/education/svrwx101/thunderstorms/faq/
https://smile.amazon.com/Rain-Natural-Cultural-Cynthia-Barnett/dp/0804137110/
https://www.quora.com/Why-dont-cumulonimbus-clouds-form-during-the-winter
https://www.quora.com/Why-does-it-get-windy-before-rain
https://www.weatherworksinc.com/cloud-types
https://www.quora.com/Do-clouds-form-in-the-winter-And-how
https://scijinks.gov/clouds/
http://indianapublicmedia.org/amomentofscience/thunder-snow/
https://www.boston.com/news/weather/2018/01/04/thundersnow-massachusetts-rhode-island
https://sites.psu.edu/siowfa15/2015/10/04/is-thunder-during-snowstorms-dangerous/
http://wxguys.ssec.wisc.edu/2016/02/08/what-is-thundersnow/
https://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/climate-weather/storms/noreaster1.htm
https://www.nbcnews.com/news/weather/video/nor-easter-aims-for-east-coast-boston-may-see-thundersnow-872534595566
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/thundersnow-storm/
https://www.popsci.com/winter-storm-thundersnow

Images:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Anvil_shaped_cumulus_panorama_edit_crop.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Fullerton_harbor_looking_south_Chicago_Feb_2_2011_storm.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :March_2014_nor%27easter_2014-03-26.jpg


Bacteria have evolved some pretty incredible abilities. They may never star in a big summer movie, but here are six bacteria with amazing superpowers.

Thank you to Derek Lovley for the use of his photo of Geobacter metallireducens. You can see more of his research here: http://geobacter.org/

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Sources:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC33863/
http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/04_02/geobacter.shtml
https://www.nature.com/articles/416767a
http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20150730-ten-bacteria-with-superpowers
http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/07_02/deinococcus.shtml
https://phys.org/news/2016-03-newly-bacteria-plastic-bottles.html
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/351/6278/1154
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/351/6278/1196
http://www.nature.com/news/2006/060410/full/news060410-1.html
https://www.livescience.com/18381-bacterial-glue-stickiest-substance-nsf-ria.html
http://www.indiana.edu/ ~rcapub/v29n1/glue.shtml
https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/lab-rat/sticky-bacteria-and-the-benefits-of-staying-still
http://www.pnas.org/content/103/15/5764
https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn13666-sexually-transmitted-bug-is-the-strongest-organism/
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https://www.livescience.com/54901-free-radicals.html
http://www.rcn.montana.edu/Organisms/Detail.aspx?id=290
https://www.nature.com/scitable/blog/microbe-matters/aquifex_to_the_rescue
----------
http://www.sciencephoto.com/set/1446/batteries-from-bugs
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deinococcus_radiodurans #/media/File:Deinococcus_radiodurans.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_irradiation #/media/File:HD.6B.452_(11984638133).jpg
https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap060122.html
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Winning an alpine skiing race can come down to a tiny margin, so the skiers have to make sure they prepare their skis just right!

Hosted by: Olivia Gordon
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Sources:
https://the-raceplace.com/pages/ski-wax-faqs
https://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov/earth/88Mod11Prob1.pdf
https://www.accuweather.com/en/weather-news/what-are-snow-ratios/4786333
http://fasterskier.com/fsarticle/swix-a-perfect-wax-for-every-condition/

Images:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Alpine_skiing_at_the_1980_Winter_Olympics.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Winter_ski_wax_-_Fort_Devens_Museum_-_DSC07132.JPG


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Last week, a group of researchers unveiled a vaccine that cures cancer in mice, and if we can get it to work in humans, it will save a lot of lives.

Hosted by: Hank Green
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Sources:
http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/10/426/eaan4488.full
https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/conversations/downloads/vacsafe-understand-color-office.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4635874/
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http://med.stanford.edu/news/all-news/2018/01/cancer-vaccine-eliminates-tumors-in-mice.html
https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/vaccines-fact-sheet
----------
Images:
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-illustration-cell-mediated-immunity/524530218/popup?sq=immune %20system/f=CPIHVX/s=DynamicRank
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-vials-and-syringe-on-blue-table-top-elevated/867398442/popup?sq=vaccine/f=CPIHVX/s=DynamicRank
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Invasive_Ductal_Carcinoma_40x.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Acute_leukemia-ALL.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Hodgkin_lymphoma,_nodular_lymphocyte_predominant_-_high_power_view_-_H%26E_-_by_Gabriel_Caponetti.jpg
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-3d-illustration-of-a-cancer-cell-and/888730408
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Many of us have longed for cool sci-fi inventions like a holodeck or replicators, but there's one tool we're actually getting pretty darn close to creating: the medical tricorder.

Hosted by: Hank Green
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Sources:

http://memory-alpha.wikia.com/wiki/Medical_tricorder
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http://www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h3480

Images:

https://www.flickr.com/photos/bojo/4078685614
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File :Siemens_Magnetom_Aera_MRI_scanner.jpg

Thumbnail Font:

https://www.dafont.com/hemi-head.font?fpp=100& ;amp;l[]=10&l[]=1&text=tricorder


Our interpersonal relationships start forming as soon as we’re born, and psychologists have studied how those early connections can set the stage for the other relationships we form later in life.

Hosted by: Stefan Chin
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Sources:
https://www.amazon.com/Fundamentals-Psychology-Context-Stephen-Kosslyn/dp/0205507573 (Pages 554-556)
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https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ960225.pdf


If you've ever associated a smell with old age, you weren't imagining it—it all has to do with the chemistry of our skin.

Hosted by: Stefan Chin
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Sources:
http://www.jidonline.org/article/S0022-202X (15)41198-4/fulltext - back-bb0055
http://www.jidonline.org/article/S0022-202X (15)45554-X/pdf
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332299800870
https://www.agingcare.com/articles/old-person-smell-174839.htm
http://www.dana.org/Cerebrum/2001/Ah ,_Sweet_Skunk!_Why_We_Like_or_Dislike_What_We_Smell/
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0038110

Image Sources:
https://pixabay.com/en/baby-child-kid-girl-cute-care-1317646/
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-portrait-of-a-senior-man/506672759/popup?sq=Old %20man/f=CPIHVX/p=6/s=DynamicRank
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal.svg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Blausen_0353_Epidermis.png
https://pixabay.com/en/skin-brown-skin-skin-up-close-2016480/
https://pixabay.com/en/roses-rosebush-flowers-blooming-1198495/